A manufactured fiber formed by compound of cellulose. It resists shrinkage, moths and mildew, but is not a strong fabric as it breaks easily and has poor resistance to abrasion. It has a soft crisp feel and a lustrous face, which are its signature characteristics.
A manufactured fiber that has a soft, wool-like feel, and uneven finish, and its fibers create a strong weave that is machine washable, dryable, and resists shrinkage.
An ornate needle lace fabric with a floral design on a sheer net background, originating in the French town of Alencon in the 16th century.
A natural hair fiber from the alpaca animal, a member of the llama family. It's rich, luxurious, soft, lightweight, and warm, with a luster similar to cashmere or mohair.
One of the finest fur fibers made, angora comes from the natural hair of the angora rabbit. It is long, silky, fine, and fluffy, but sheds and mats over time.
A cutout fabric decoration attached to a larger piece of material, in order to add depth, designs or contrasting colors.
A design featuring interlinking diamond shapes of varying colors, in a diagonal checkerboard pattern. Thought to have been derived from the tartan of Clan Campbell, og Argyll, Scotland.
Baize is a loose woolen fabric, with a finely cut nap on both sides. This heavily felted material is traditionally dyed either red or green, and is used for simple clothing, as well as drawer linings and tablecloths. Derived from the French baie, the Spanish name for baize is bayetta.
Bamboo is a natural fiber which is bacteria and odor resistant, as well as absorbent and breathable. Bamboo's strength lends excellent durability to a fabric.
A printed, textured cotton fabric, popular from the 1930s to 1950s, featuring floral and leaf designs.
A relatively simple weave involving two or more warp ends woven parallel to each other, resulting in a thatched texture.
Batik is a fabric dyeing technique originating in Indonesia, which uses wax resist molds to create designs. The wax is poured on a fabric, typically cotton, and allowed to harden in the shape of the desired design. The cloth is then dyed and the wav removed, with the remaining design in the original cloth color. This process can be repeated for intricate design work, and the characteristic veined look of Batik is achieved when some dye leaks through cracks in the wax.
An extremely fine, semi-sheer, lightweight, plain weave fabric. It is almost transparent and is usually made of cotton or cotton blends.
A fabric with a crosswise rib, traditionally made from silk, cotton or wool, but now predominantly made from acetate or polyester. Bengaline is similar to faille but heavier in weight.
A combination of two or more fibers within the same yarn. Fabrics are often made from blended yarns to increase durability, stretch, stain resistance and cost efficiency.
From the French word meaning curled, boucle is a knit or woven fabric with loops that create an uneven, textured surface at intervals. Because of the fabric's looped, knotted surface, it has a very supple, bouncy hand.
A dense woolen cloth with a plain weave that is tightly woven and usually made from cotton or a cotton blend. It is heavier, lustrous, and soft, and made with a crosswise rib.
A thick, heavy fabric made with a Jacquard loom and a satin weave, most often featuring a raised floral pattern. Brocade is typically made from silk, rayon or nylon, and has a very Oriental look. It is often used in home decor, womens wear and accessories.
A plain weave fabric, usually made from cotton or linen, that is stiffened with starch during the manufacturing process. Buckram is typically used in bookbinding and millenary.
The removal of excess knots, bumps, loose threads and slubs from a fabric before the finishing process, by means of a burling iron or tweezers. Burling does not damage the fabric and ensures a smooth texture.
A densely constructed, heavy weight, plain weave fabric with a coarse texture. It is also called jute, as it is made from jute and vegetable fibers.
The burn-out look is created when fiber-eating chemicals are printed on the fabric instead of color. The desired pattern is left imprinted in the velvet leaving the backing untouched.
A process to flatten fabric involving alternating smooth metal and cloth-wrapped rollers, similar to ironing. The process can also be used to apply different finishes to pre-treated textiles, as well as to coat fabrics with plastics or rubber.
A plain weave cotton material that is unbleached and still retains some of the natural vegetable matter normally extracted in the manufacturing process. Named for the town of Calicut in India, calico fabric is typically used for making quilts.
A lightweight plain weave cotton or linen cloth, slightly heavier than muslin, that is closely woven and calendered to give a slight sheen on one side. The material was originally a linen fabric woven in Cambrai in northern France.
A premium luxury material, similar in look and feel to cashmere, made from the under wool of the camel. Extremely soft, camel hair is typically found in dressy jackets and overcoats.
An extremely heavy-duty, plain weave fabric. Made from plied yarns and has an even weave.
The process of opening, disentangling, cleaning and then separating fibers to produce a continuous strand which is then spun into a yarn. Performed on a machine called a card.
Made from the natural fibers of the soft undercoat of the cashmere goat. Extremely high-quality, lightweight, and luxurious fabric.
A plain woven fabric, typically made from cotton or synthetic fibers, that is often woven in checkered or striped patterns and has a frosted appearance. Usually made from blue and white yarns and used to make shirts, dresses and childrens clothing, the fabric originated in the town of Cambrai in northern France.
A lace featuring a netted background with ornate, often dense embroidered floral patterns with outlines made from heavier threads. Originated in Chantilly, France in the 17th century.
A luxurious, supple, silky fabric with an extremely shiny face and a dull back, similar to satin but lighter in weight. Usually made from rayon or cotton, but premium varieties are made from silk.
A soft, sheer, woven cloth, often porous. Cheesecloth is often bleached white or naturally off-white, and can be used for cooking and straining liquids.
Made from tightly twisted crepe fibers, chiffon is lightweight, extremely sheer, almost transparent fabric that has a slightly bumpy texture.
Calico cloth printed with large flamboyant designs, typically with a floral print. This plain-weave fabric is often starched for stiffness and calendered with wax to produce a smooth shiny surface. Fabric must be dry-cleaned as the glazing will wash off with machine laundering.
The process following carding, combing straightens fibers into parallel strands and removed any remaining impurities or short pieces, in order to further soften cotton yarns.
An exceptionally durable fabric, usually made of cotton or a cotton blend, composed of twisted fibers that, when woven, lie parallel to one another to form the cloth's distinct parallel ribbed pattern, a "cord." The number of ribs, or wales, per inch of fabric indicates the type of corduroy, with values ranging from a very wide 3 wales to pincords with 21 wales per inch.
Made from the soft fibers that grow around the seeds of the cotton plant. The fibers are spun into yarns to create a comfortable, breathable, machine washable fabrics that are the most widely used natural-fiber materials in the world.
A fine, almost gauzelike fabric made of synthetic or natural fibers that are twisted to give a slightly crinkled texture. It can be found in a variety of different weights and levels of sheerness. Crepes are dull with a harsh dry feel.
A satin fabric in which the wrong side has the crinkled texture of crepe, while the right side has a smooth, shiny satin finish.
Crepe de Chine
Woven of hard spun silk yarn in the natural condition. The fabric has a somewhat crimpy or crinkled surface created by the highly twisted fibers.
The waviness or curvature of a fiber or yarn. Can be found naturally, as with wool, or can be mechanically produced.
From the French word meaning hook, crochet is the method of creating fabric from yarn using a crochet hook, a tool with a knobbed end used for pulling loops of yarn through other loops. Similar to knitting, although crochet only involves one active loop at a time.
A heavy fabric made from cotton, silk, linen, wool or synthetic yarns, typically used for draperies and home decor. Typically made using a satin weave, this reversible fabric is named for a luxurious silk fabric introduced through Damascus, Syria.
A lightweight wool fabric featuring a print.
A strong, durable twill weave cotton fabric, originating in Nimes, France, made with different colored yarns in the warp and the weft. The weft passes under two or more warp fibers, which produces a diagonal ribbing found on the reverse of the fabric. The twill construction causes one color (blue is most common) to dominate the fabric's surface.
The twill weave cotton is blended with spandex to give the denim elasticity.
A type of weave using for decorations, featuring woven geometric patterns.
A heavier fabric in which two layers of looped fabric are woven together and cannot be separated. Manufactured using a double knit machine, which has two distinct sets of needles.
Duck fabric, or duck cloth, is a heavy-duty plain weave fabric, resistant to the elements and used for outdoor coverings and tarps. The term is typically interchangeable with canvas.
The silk yarns are made from the cocoon of two silk worms that have nested together. In spinning, the double strand is not separated, creating uneven yarns that give the fabric a crisp texture with irregular slubs. Also referred to as dupion or doupioni.
A stretchy yarn or fabric.
A soft, smooth, twill weave fabric with diagonal ribbing.
A calendering method of pressing designs or patterns onto a fabric using engraved rollers.
A type of needlework that involves sewing thread into a base fabric to create designs. Embroidery can be done by hand or by machine, and can use threads of varying thicknesses.
Fabric with patterned cut-outs, edged with embroidered stitches as part of a design.
Pronounced "file", it is a soft, ribbed fabric, typically made from silk, cotton, or synthetic yarns, with a slight sheen. Similar to bengaline.
A non-woven fabric where the fibers are pressed, matted, and condensed together to form a compact material. It comes in varying weights and thicknesses, and because of its grain, felt can be cut any direction, and does not fray.
A soft twill weave, usually made from cotton or wool fabric that has been brushed or has a slightly napped surface.
The natural fiber, grown chiefly in Western and Eastern Europe, that is used in the production of linen. Flax seeds are also used as a dietary supplement and are used to make linseed oil.
An all-wool or synthetic knit fabric with a deep soft pile. It provides good insulation without the too much weight or bulk. Also the term for the complete shaving of a sheep's wool at on time.
Metal layering that adds shine, color or designs to the underlying fabric. often found on spandex and stretch fabrics.
A lightweight fabric, made from silk or synthetic fibers with a twill weave and featuring small patterns on a solid background. Often used in men's neckties.
A tough, tight, twill weave that is wrinkle resistant and features diagonal ribbing. Worsted wool (woolen yarn) is the most common fiber used, but cotton, synthetic, or blended fibers are also popular.
A thin, sheer fabric with a loose open weave that is usually made from cotton or silk.
A woven fabric created from highly twisted yarns creating a pebbly texture. It is thin and semi-sheer and is characterized by its crispness and exceptional strength.
A device invented by Eli Whitney that separates the cotton fiber from the cotton seed. Prior to this machine, the separation was done by hand.
A checkered pattern fabric featuring dyed and undyed fibers, most often made from cotton.
An extremely lightweight, sheer, shiny fabric, typically made from silk, similar to gauze.
Sheep's wool that has not been fully scoured, and still retains its natural grease and lanolin.
A heavy, tightly woven ribbed fabric typically made from silk. Used in formal wear and for neckties.
From the Japanese for "soft as down", habotai is a lightweight, plain weave silk fabric. Lighter than shantung, it is also referred to as habotai.
A zig zag twill weave pattern, popular for dress shirts.
A two-toned pattern featuring broken checks or pointed shapes, originating in Scotland. Popular in 1960's style jackets, suits and hats. Also referred to as dog's tooth.
A manual weaving style that involves resist dyeing the warp or weft threads before the fabric is created. Originating in Southeast Asia, ikat fabrics can be extremely ornate and intricate, often featuring detailed designs or larger pictures. The more difficult method of double ikat involves the dyeing of both the warp and weft threads.
Interfacing & Interlining
The fabric used between the inner and outer layers of a garment to enhance warmth, strength or shape. Interfacing fabrics come in fusible (pre-treated with glue and attached to the fabric with an iron) and sew-in varieties, in a wide array of weights.
A weaving method invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard, which involves a machine attached to a loom that can electronically select and control individual warp threads. The Jacquard loom is used to create intricately woven fabrics, including brocade and damask. Silk, polyester and rayon are commonly used in the Jacquard process.
A general term for any knit garment or fabric, the material has length-wise ribs on the right side, and cross-wise ribs on the wrong side. It is crease-resistant, very resilient, and has the flexibility and stretch of knit. Usually made from wool, cotton or silk, but synthetics are often used as well.
A lightweight vegetable fiber found in the seed pods of the Bombocaceae tree, native to Central and South America. The fiber is water resistant and buoyant, and while difficult to spin and weave, is often found as filling in mattresses, pillows, life vests and upholstery.
A yellowish earth tone color, also a rugged twill weave fabric, often in the same dusty brown color. First named and utilized in 1848 by English soldiers fighting in Afghanistan.
The process of interlocking loops of yarn to form a fabric. Warp knitting loops yarn across a fabric, while weft knitting loops several yarns down the length of a fabric.
A decorative open fabric made through knitting or looping yarns together. Lace also refers to design work on top of a base fabric, resulting in a raised pattern.
The first clippings of young sheep, about seven or eight months old, are mostly used in high grade fabrics. They are woven to create a warm, durable wool that is elastic, soft, and resilient.
Pronouced "lamay", lame is a shiny evening wear fabric made from metallic yarns.
A fine, somewhat porous fabric made from cotton or linen, originating in Laon, France. Lawn is more crisp than voile, but less than organdy, and is often found in summery blouses and dresses.
A material created through the tanning of animal hides, typically from cattle. Leather can feature course or smooth finishes, and takes dye well. Used for jackets, pants and upholstery.
This fabric is made from the fibers of the flax plant, and when woven, this extremely cool and breathable material is stronger and more lustrous than cotton.
A machine or frame used to weave cloth. The earliest looms featured vertical warp yarns affixes to two ends of the frame, while the horizontal weft yarns were manually woven through. Today there are many different types of looms, from the hand looms still in use in developing countries to computer-controlled Jacquard looms that are able to control minute movements in the weaving process with speed and efficiency.
A brand name of a type of metallic yarn, which is a polyester fiber with a vaporized layer of aluminum applied.
The trademark name for DuPont's brand of Spandex fiber.
A manufactured fiber made from wood pulp cellulose, an environmentally-friendly material found in plants cells. It is classified as a sub-category of rayon, with a similar soft hand and drape, but slightly more durable. It has a subtle sheen and is very breathable.
A handmade cotton fabric originating in Madras, India, featuring bright, bold striping and checked patterns.
A rayon or silk blended fabric with elastic that is very lightweight with a soft feel and dull crepe texture.
Made from wool fibers, sometimes combined with synthetics, in either a twill or satin weave. It is heavy, closely sheared, compacted, and tightly woven. First used as a hunting cloth, the fabric resembles wool felt.
The process developed in 1844 by John Mercer to give a shiny, smooth finish to cotton fabric. First, the fabric is singed, then passed through a solution of caustic soda and finally rinsed. The process makes the fibers of the fabric swell, giving them increased strength and an increased ability to hold dye.
The wool from the Australian merino sheep, generally regarded as the finest wool fibers in the world.
A porous fabric with a net-like appearance.
Made from extremely fine nylon or polyester filaments that when woven into textiles, makes them exceptionally soft while retaining their shape.
Made from spun Beechwood cellulose, the bio-based fibers create textiles that do not fibrillate, or pill, and are resilient to shrinking and fading.
The long, lustrous hair from the Angora goat, renowned for its durability and strength.
The name refers to the short, silky fur of a mole, but is actually a heavy durable cotton fabric with a short, thick, velvety nap. The surface is smooth and dense, resembling suede.
A sheer, lightweight cotton fabric that is produced mainly in India. This plain-weave material can be used a thin blankets or as a backing for quilts.
The nap of a fabric is the direction in which the sheared pile faces, and can be manipulated with combing or brushing.
A very porous, open fabric similar to mesh and often made with synthetic fibers.
Strong, elastic and quick-drying, this is abrasion-resistant thermoplastic material has good chemical resistance and blends with natural fibers for durability and stretch.
A plain-weave cotton fabric which is treated with a solution of linseed oil (an extract of the flax plant) and a coloring, and then glazed to ensure water-resistance. Oil cloth has been mostly replaced with plastic coated cloth, and was popular for tablecloths and rainwear.
A stiffened, sheer, lightweight, transparent fabric, usually made from tightly twisted cotton or polyester yarns, with a crisp finish. Will withstand repeated launderings and still preserve the crisp texture.
Tightly twisted silk yarns make an extremely crisp, sheer, lightweight fabric. Organza was traditionally the silk version of organdy, but is now made from other fibers as well.
A swirled design named for the town of Paisley, Scotland, which was one of the major producers of the fabric in the early to mid-19th century. Often found on quilts, curtains and summery clothing.
A highly lustrous, lightweight fabric, in which the pile is higher than velvet, but shorter than plush, and has been flattened. Has good stretch across the grain.
Similar to cashmere, pashmina is the soft, fine underhair from a variety of goat found in Central Asia. From the Persian word for woolen.
A soft, smooth plain weave fabric made from carded and combed cotton yarns. Often found in summer wear and light bedding.
From the Latin word for hair, pile is the extra yarn that protrudes from the surface of a fabric. Pile can be shaved and shaped, as with velvet and corduroy, or can be left uncut as with terry cloth.
Named after the Pima Indians who cultivated this plant in the Southwestern United States, Pima cotton is similar to Egyptian cotton, as it has exceptionally strong, long, combed fibers, dyes well and has a silky soft hand.
A medium-weight, tightly woven cotton or cotton blend fabric generally recognizable by its waffle weave texture.
Also referred to as tartan cloth, plaid originated in the Scottish Highlands as a way to differentiate the different clans. Once denoting the garment itself, plaid is now used to refer to the specific crisscross designs and can be applied to a wide array of fabrics and uses.
A plain weave cotton fabric with permanent creases and wrinkles that have been produced through the application of a caustic solution in order to shrink specific areas. Similar in appearance to seersucker, plisse fabric is often used for bedspreads and dresses.
Velvet with a deep, soft pile, plush is easily found in childrens' stuffed animals. From the French word peluche meaning hairy, plush fabric can also be knitted for a bit of stretch.
When two or more threads are twisted together before weaving, increasing yarn density and weight.
Condensation polymers combine to develop synthetic fibers that make this strong, quick-drying textile that does not wrinkle and holds its shape well.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
A waterproof, rubbery textured man-made fabric often found in outdoor upholstery, costumes and specialty apparel.
Also called tabinet, this plain-woven fabric has a corded surface that runs selvage to selvage. Usually made from a silk warp with a weft of worsted yarn, but can also be made with wool, cotton, rayon, or any mixture.
Generally made from 100% cotton and featuring novelty designs or specific images, used for making quilts.
A warp-knitted fabric that resembles handmade lace, crochet or nettings. A connecting yarn is interwoven among the vertical knit of the fabric.
Made from the cellulose fiber viscose, it usually has good drape, soft hand and is highly absorbent.
From the French word riban, a narrow fabric used for bows and wrapping.
A lightweight, wind and water resistant textile. Double yarns create a box pattern to provide extra strength and resistance to tearing. Commonly used in outdoor clothing and equipment as well as outdoor flags because of its extreme durability.
An extremely heavyweight canvas fabric, resistant to the elements, that is used for ship's sails.
A patented process to pre-shrink fabric, developed by Sanford Pruett in the 1930s. Fabrics treated with this process should never shrink more than 1%.
A silky, lustrous satin weave fabric predominantly made from cotton. Sateen often has an increased thread count for extra softness and durability.
A smooth lustrous, shiny fabric with a dull back that has a superb drape and sheen. It is characterized by a weaving technique that forms a minimum number of interlacings in a fabric. Satin differs from sateen in that it is woven using filament fibers such as silk or nylon whereas sateens are woven using short-staple fibers like cotton.
A fabric distinguishable by its crepe-like, crinkled stripes, which are made by weaving some of the warp threads slack and others tight. This fabric is traditionally cotton, but can be made from nylon, silk and other yarns, and is typically worn in the summer.
Small metal or plastic discs that are sewn or otherwise affixed to a fabric to add depth, texture or decoration.
A smooth, crisp, non-pattern fabric where the yarns in both the warp and filling are alternately light and colored creating a subtle two-tone appearance.
This medium-weight, refined, plain-weave fabric is characterized by a slubbed effect, similar to Dupioni silk, but with a more sophisticated and polished appearance.
A semi-transparent fabric that can be treated to have varying levels of crispness or body. Sheer fabrics are often used as volumizers underneath other fabrics, as draperies, or as sleeves for evening wear.
The fabric is woven using the natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. Silk is a naturally strong, lustrous, and fine fiber that produces long-lasting, versatile, and high-quality multi-purpose fabrics.
A form of embroidery in which fabric is gathered and folded to provide increased stretch and comfort. Developed in the Middle Ages, smocking requires soft, lightweight, durable fabric, often batiste, voile or lawn, and is typically used for collars, cuffs and bodices. Smocking often reduces the fabric's original width by up to two thirds.
Made with elastic fibers that can be stretched up to five times its original length without damage. When blended with natural fibers, it creates a lightweight and flexible fabric with great shape retention.
A method of creating a distressed surface on a fabric by means of rubbing or grating with sand or pebbles. Often used on denim to create a "worn" look.
Leather that has been given a velvety nap.
A fiber which has been man-made through the use of chemical combinations. Synthetic fibers often have increased durability, strength and resistance to the elements.
With a smooth feel, and a crisp hand, taffeta can be made from a variety of fibers including silk and rayon. It has a subtle horizontal ribbing effect and provides lots of body and an ultimate rustle.
A heavy, often ornately designed textile typically used for wall-hangings and large draperies. From the French tapis meaning carpet.
The traditional name for Scottish plaid cloth, originally made from wool with a twill weave. From the French tiretaine meaning "linsey-woolsey". The set, or number of threads of each color in each warp and weft stripe, of each style of tartan cloth is recorded and maintained by The Scottish Tartan Society.
A fabric made from the cellulose of wood pulp, then processed into a silk-like fabric that is very soft with great drape. It's usually a medium weight fabric that can be easily dyed and cared for.
Usually made from cotton, but sometimes made from linen, this fabric has a moisture-absorbing loop pile that covers surface on one or both sides.
A process of resist dyeing, where parts of a cloth are tied, knotted or folded as to avoid penetration of a particular dye.
This lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made hexagonal shape netting, is usually made from nylon, silk, or rayon.
A medium to heavy weight, roughly textured wool fabric, often featuring a twill weave, houndstooth or herringbone design. A classically English look accompanies this durable fabric, which is popular in sport coats, jackets and hats.
An incredibly versatile fabric distinguishable by diagonal ribs on its face, and a soft, smooth finish. Gabardine, serge, and denim are all examples of till fabrics.
A synthetic fabric similar to suede, with a micro-fiber structure, that is stain resistant and durable.
The practice of covering furniture with fabric. Upholstery fabric need to be durable and resistant to stains and wear, and are often made from heavy cotton, leather or synthetic fabrics.
Typically produced with a knitted back, velour resembles velvet, but has some stretch and an uneven pile giving it a slightly rougher look. Velour is French for velvet, and it is made from fibers such as cotton, wool, or spun rayon.
Velvet is one of the most luxurious fabrics because of its evenly cut, thick, soft pile. Traditionally made from silk, velvet comes in a variety of blends like rayon/silk, cotton, or nylon, and some velvets, such as stretch velvet, has some lycra blended in as well.
A lightweight fabric made from cotton with a very short, dense pile. Developed in Manchester, England in the 18th century, velveteen lacks the sheen and drape of velvet, is woven with an extra filling yarn, and can have a plain or a twill back.
A synthetic fabric made from PVC which resembles leather.
A man made synthetic fiber, typically referred to as rayon. Viscose has a silken, smooth feel and a terrific drape, and is often used for linings and bridal garments.
Usually made with cylindrical combed yarns, this plain, loosely woven fabric has an extremely clear surface because the excess fuzzy yarns are singed away. It is thin, semi-transparent, and very lightweight, resembling an organdy or organza in appearance.
The vertical threads in a particular fabric or on a loom.
The manner in which a fabric is produced, utilizing methods of combining the warp and weft threads. The type of weave affects the strength, stretch, sheen and weight of a fabric. The basic types of weaves are plain, twill and satin.
The horizontal threads in a particular fabric or on a loom.
A heavier twill fabric, similar to gabardine or elastique, but more rugged and with a steeper ribbing.
This textile is made using the fibers from the hair of animals, such as goats, sheep, camels, or llamas, and it comes in several different forms from crepe, to gabardine, to worsted. Wool is moisture absorbing and known for its warmth, and is also naturally stain and wrinkle resistant.
A finely woven wool crepe with two layers bonded together to generate lighter-weight wool fabric.
A high quality, fine wool yarn produced from the short, strong, and durable fleece of the Merino sheep. It is extremely soft and versatile.
A wool fabric woven from firmly twisted yarns, which are spun from combed long-staple wool, creating a solid smooth surface with no nap.
Also referred to as thread, yarn is the basic component of all fabrics. Yarn can be composed of twisted natural or synthetic fibers, or a longer single fiber.
Named after the zibeline animal of Siberia, this textile is a satin weave faric made from the wool of cross-bred worsted yarns. Zibeline is napped, then steamed and pressed. It has a long, one-directional nape and is very sleek and shiny. Also known as zibaline.